Struvite Kidney Stones
Struvite kidney stones are sometimes called triple phosphate stones
because of their combination of magnesium, ammonium and
calcium/phosphate. They are found predominantly in
with chronic urinary infections and people suffering from abnormal
urinary tracts. They are most often associated with infections of the
Unlike other crystalline stones, struvite stones are more amorphous and
spread out into the insides of the kidneys which gives them their
Struvite storms can also form around calcium oxalate stones when
the stone becomes infected. This is a potentially dangerous situation
that can cause the stone to grow so big that it blocks the entire
Struvite stones are also found in dogs and house cats that are
infected with ammonia producing organisms. Cats may show signs of
struvite stones by having difficulty in urinating and/or blood in the
urine. These indications may be mistaken for constipation. The stones
accumulate in the bladder and require surgery for removal. Seek a
Veterinarian for treatment.
Urine reveals very high alkaline level; pH>8.
Pyonephrosis or kidney infection or obstruction and infection
of the bloodstream are potential complications. They can be very
dangerous. If you have an accompanying fever with
, consult your doctor. Fever may indicate an infection.
The infection causes the release of a bacteria called Proteus,
the foundation of struvite stones and take on the shape of the internal
calyces in the
and form branches or "antler" like shapes called
These "staghorn" variety can also layer themselves over the top of other stones like
calcium oxalate stones
and are formed when the stone encompasses two or more calyces, giving it
an antler-like appearance. A physician will look at various factors
when treating struvite kidney stones:
Cause of Infection
Kidney Stones In Children
Children who form stones are most likely to develop stones of the
struvite variety due to hereditary conditions that cause infections.
Treatment will most likely involve removing all stones, either percutaneously or with lithotripsy.
The infected stones must all be removed. Inhibiting the enzyme that
accelerates the formation of struvite stones will also be required.
Antibiotics, dietary modifications, reduction of dietary phosphate and aluminium hydroxide may also be prescribed.
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